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If it's recessive then you would see it in one out of every four, you know, daughters -- one out of every four progeny, that's the genetics. Also, it's complicated because it also depends on how many mutations are required, it starts to get complicated quickly, but my genetics friends could tell you all about that, Buy Terpenes but it makes sense right, that yes you'd see those mutations coming through, whereas if you use a small molecule, you know, once the small molecule is metabolized -- once it's hydrolyzed or whatever -- oxidized, it's game over, it's effects disappear. And that too is powerful, right, so you apply the small molecule and then it goes away and you go back to wild type, and so you can see what it looks like if the small molecule's not there in exactly the same organism. Okay, all right, so I want to get back to the seven different kinds, now that we understand how small molecules are going to play important roles.

I'm going to highlight the import -- the rules of the small molecules as we start looking at the seven different pathways for cell signalling. One of the most common of these cell signalling pathways are the nuclear hormone -- or the nuclear receptor-based pathways, there are some 28 nuclear receptors, only eight have well-identified known, as recently as a couple of years ago. Okay, so these eight are depicted here, so some of these are familiar to us, I believe we talked about the  True Terpenes these hormones earlier in the quarter, we talked earlier today about the processes of synthesizing estrogen which eventually can be further modified to give us. Here's testosterone over here, here's over here, these are all steroid receptors, right, all these guys up here are steroids, these guys down here,  acid, these are other hormones, these hormones bind directly to nuclear receptors and as we see in a moment the nuclear receptors directly carry the signals all the way to the DNA level. Note that when these things are bound.

When these hormones over here are bound, they're completely engulfed by the protein, the protein throws a big old' sloppy bear hug around the steroid over here and it's completely buried, okay. So in this space-filling model, you don't see any yellow, okay, it's completely covered up. The thing is heavily buried by the receptor. The receptor changes its conformation upon binding to the hormone and that in turn allows it to do stuff, like get into the nucleus and start affecting transcription. Oh, by the way, I told you that these are the eight that are known, the other twenty sorts of unknown, it's not that those other twenty binds to various metabolites weekly, Terpenes for sale okay, meaning not very strong and so that binding is thought to be a little non-specific and a way of sampling many different states in the cell. So different steps along with metabolism and other intermediate compounds as well, okay. So why don't we take a look, there are two modes of nuclear receptor signalling that we need to learn about, one of these is illustrated by estrogen. So here's estrogen over here, in the hypothalamus and the hypothalamic neurons in this -- the estrogen binds to the estrogen receptor. The estrogen receptor then dissociates from the heat shock protein, and that freeze up the estrogen receptor to eventually make its way to the nucleus, okay. 


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